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Chemistry of Portland Cement Clinker


The users of Portland cement also have considerable expectations with regard to the material’s performance. It is expected to react with water in a controlled manner, producing hydrated minerals which not only develop strength, but also produce a dense hardened product which can protect embedded reinforcing steel and resist attack by the elements.


New Geologists, Engineers, Chemists who are working in Cement Field.


Nature of Portland Cement

  • Brief history of Portland cement manufacture
  • Raw materials and chemical composition of clinker
  • The clinker minerals
  • Oxide proportions in clinker.

Clinckering Reactions

  • Importance of clinker flux
  • Sequence of clinkering reactions
  • Influence of kiln atmosphere

The Control Ratios

  • Formulae
  • Lime saturation factor
  • Silica ratio
  • Alumina ratio
  • Sensitivity of LSF and C3S content to chemistry variations
  • Typical values for control ratios in production clinker
  • Use of control ratios to proportion raw materials

Raw Mix Mineralogy and Homogeneity

  • Mineralogy
  • Homogeneity

Minor Constituents

Determination of Chemical Compound Composition

  • Chemical composition
  • Compound composition

Special Clinker

  • Types
  • Sulfate resisting clinker
  • White cement clinker